[120] German has 13,444 speakers representing about 0.4% of the state's population,[120] and Vietnamese is spoken by 11,330 people,[120] or about 0.4% of the population,[120] many of whom live in the Asia District of Oklahoma City. The principal head of government, the Governor is the chief executive of the Oklahoma executive branch, serving as the ex officio Commander-in-chief of the Oklahoma National Guard when not called into Federal use and reserving the power to veto bills passed through the Legislature. [20] In early 2011, the tribal district court ruled that the special election in 2007 on the constitutional amendment was unconstitutional, as it excluded Freedmen from voting. The oil field "Sooner Trend", Anadarko basin and the counties of Kingfisher and Canadian make up the basis for the "Oklahoma STACK". Name. [254] Broadcast television in Oklahoma began in 1949 when KFOR-TV (then WKY-TV) in Oklahoma City and KOTV-TV in Tulsa began broadcasting a few months apart. [69] In 1881, four of five major cattle trails on the western frontier traveled through Indian Territory. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. [142] Among the state's largest industries, the aerospace sector generates $11 billion annually. [267][268] In terms of traffic, R. L. Jones Jr. (Riverside) Airport in Tulsa is the state's busiest airport, with 335,826 takeoffs and landings in 2008. Forests cover 24 percent of Oklahoma[44] and prairie grasslands composed of shortgrass, mixed-grass, and tallgrass prairie, harbor expansive ecosystems in the state's central and western portions, although cropland has largely replaced native grasses. In 1975, these Cherokee drafted their constitution as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, which was ratified on June 26, 1976. v. Leavitt et al", "After Years of Division, Cherokees Get a New Leader", "Applying for Cherokee Citizenship: Constructing Race, Nation, and Identity, 1900–1906", Chuck Trimble, "The Cherokee Dred Scott Decision", Associated Press, "Cherokees Told To Take Back Slaves' Descendants", Steve Olafson, "Cherokee tribe retreats from effort to oust some members", Molly O'Toole, "Cherokee tribe reaches agreement to reinstate 2,800 'Freedmen'", "Landmark Supreme Court Ruling Affirms Native American Rights in Oklahoma", "5 Tribes, state seek 'shared position' on jurisdiction after McGirt case", "Cherokee seed project sows respect for the past, hope for the future", "Immersion students win trophies at language fair", "Cherokee Language Revitalization Project", "With new 'language hub,' Cherokee Nation hopes to make ancient language part of everyday life again", "Cherokee AG: Tribe must recognize same-sex marriage", "Cherokee Attorney General rules gay marriage bans unconstitutional", "Delawares pass constitution, move closer to federal recognition", "Delaware Tribe regains federal recognition", "Texas Legislature Online – 85(R) Actions for SCR 25", Cherokee Nation 2010 Economic Impact Report, "Judge throws out suit challenging Cherokee control of hospital", https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNZgKeTUzTk, "11th Annual Native American Music Awards nominees announced", "Only one state makes history with election of first Native governor", Cherokee Nation Fish and Wildlife Association, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cherokee_Nation&oldid=1002295987, Cherokee-speaking countries and territories, Federally recognized tribes in the United States, Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, States and territories established in 1839, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing Cherokee-language text, Pages using infobox settlement with missing country, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Articles needing additional references from January 2021, All articles needing additional references, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Education Services Group – oversees all early childhood development programs, cultural and historical preservation efforts, higher education scholarships, and operates several schools for Cherokee students, Health Services Group – provides direct care and community health services, including the operation of eight regional health clinics and one central hospital facility, Financial Resources Group – central accounting, budgeting, and acquisition services for the entire Government, Community Services Group – provides public transit services, constructs road and sanitary sewer infrastructure projects, environmental health services, and self-help housing assistance, Management Resources Group – provides centralized support services to the entire government, including facilities management, risk management, natural resources preservation, and long range planning and development, Commerce Services Group – operates the Nation's Small Business Assistance Center which provides financial support to Cherokee-owned business, provides mortgage assistance to Cherokee homebuyers, and promotes cultural tourism, Human Services Group – provides family assistance programs, child support services, child care centers, child welfare and protective services, and veterans affairs services, Government Resources Group – oversees funds received from the Federal Government, manages all Tribal property, and oversees Tribal registration, Housing Services Group – operates low-income and elderly rental property for citizens, provides rehabilitation to private homes, provides mortgage assistance to citizens, and provides subsidy for rental properties, Career Services Group – provides job training, job relocation assistance, vocational rehabilitation, and operates "Talking Leaves", Leadership Services Group – operates the Cherokee Ambassador program, manages the, Office of the Attorney General – provides legal advice and representation to the Tribe and prosecutes violators of Tribal law, Cherokee Marshal Service – provides full service law enforcement services to the Nation, Human Resources Group – provides centralize personnel management for all employee recruitment and management affairs of the government, Information Systems Group – provides centralized information technology management for the government, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (1824-present), Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory (1839–1907), United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians (1939–present), This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 19:24. As of 2011[update], 47.3% of Oklahoma's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. [269] Oklahoma has more than 150 public-use airports. On average, our communications teams send out at least 30 news releases a month. [199][203] In 1953 he was featured along with the Oklahoma! Using a stretch of highway from Amarillo, Texas to Tulsa, Oklahoma to form the original portion of Highway 66, Avery spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Highway 66 Association to oversee the planning of Route 66, based in his hometown of Tulsa. [132], The state had 85,500 farms in 2012, collectively producing $4.3 billion in animal products and fewer than one billion dollars in crop output with more than $6.1 billion added to the state's gross domestic product. [35], A Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma educates students from pre-school through eighth grade. [41][45], More than 500 named creeks and rivers make up Oklahoma's waterways, and with 200 lakes created by dams, it holds the nation's highest number of artificial reservoirs. [178] The plan was part of an ambitious goal that in fifty years would have at least 80% of their people fluent. 1 in Pre-Kindergarten", "Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972–2009", "High school diploma or higher, by percentage by state", "College study should concern Oklahoma policymakers", "Rare Eye Condition Takes Center Stage at NSUOCO", "OBU Named to The Princeton Review "Best in the West" list", "Oklahoma Colleges: A Profile of College Degree Programs & Post-Secondary Education in Oklahoma", "Fed up with school spending cuts, Oklahoma teachers walk out", "Teacher pay raise boosts Oklahoma to 34th in nation, new rankings find", "Immersion students win trophies at language fair", Universities partner to save dying languages, "Fodor's Choice: Top Overlooked Destinations", "Filmmaker to share documentary chronicling local poet's life", "Ridge Bond, Oklahoman—Tulsa World: Archives", "Oklahoma Today February–March 1998 Volume 48 No. [236], Regular LPGA tournaments are held at Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa, and major championships for the PGA or LPGA have been played at Southern Hills Country Club in Tulsa, Oak Tree Country Club in Oklahoma City, and Cedar Ridge Country Club in Tulsa. Ranking 13th for total energy consumption per capita in 2009,[152] the state's energy costs were eighth-lowest in the nation. This is despite some of these groups having signed treaties in the past. A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ), translating as "Principal People".Tsalagi (ᏣᎳᎩ) is the Cherokee word for the Cherokee language.. [257] In 2006, there were more than 220 newspapers in the state, including 177 with weekly publications and 48 with daily publications. [106], The center of population of Oklahoma is in Lincoln County near the town of Sparks. W. W. Keeler was appointed chief in 1949. The CHC is the repository for the Cherokee Nation as its National Archives. These records pertain to the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee (Creek), and Seminole tribes. These communities are composed of a majority of enrolled Cherokee Nation citizens. What do you see as the significance of … Southern Plains villagers lived in the central and west of the state, with a subgroup, the Panhandle culture people living in the panhandle region. Most of the state lies in an area known as Tornado Alley characterized by frequent interaction between cold, dry air from Canada, warm to hot, dry air from Mexico and the Southwestern U.S., and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. The deputy chief acts as the chief in his or her absence. ], the modern Cherokee Nation has experienced an almost unprecedented expansion in economic growth and prosperity for its citizens. [28][33][34], In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe' (literally meaning red earth),[35] Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa,[36] and Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh.[37]. [40][41] Its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet (1,516 m) above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle. The service time for each appointed chief was so brief that it became known as "Chief for a Day". [134], The state is the top manufacturer of tires in North America and contains one of the fastest-growing biotechnology industries in the nation. The chief is assisted in managing the executive branch by the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Marshal, the Treasurer, and several group leaders. [135], In 2010, Oklahoma City-based Love's Travel Stops & Country Stores ranked 18th on the Forbes list of largest private companies, Tulsa-based QuikTrip ranked 37th, and Oklahoma City-based Hobby Lobby ranked 198th in 2010 report. Snowfall ranges from an average of less than 4 in (102 mm) in the south to just over 20 in (508 mm) on the border of Colorado in the panhandle. [287] Two of the fifty largest cities in the United States are in Oklahoma, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, and sixty-five percent of Oklahomans live within their metropolitan areas, or spheres of economic and social influence defined by the United States Census Bureau as a metropolitan statistical area. On June 20, 1997, his private militia illegally seized custody of the Cherokee Nation Courthouse from its legal caretakers and occupants, the Cherokee Nation Marshals, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal, and its court clerks. The two state universities, along with Oklahoma City University and the University of Tulsa, rank among the country's best in undergraduate business programs. The crisis came to a head on March 22, 1997, when Byrd said in a press conference that he would decide which orders of the Cherokee Nation's Supreme Court were lawful and which were not. [69] The territory was a part of the Arkansas Territory from 1819 until 1828. Many groups have sought recognition by the federal government as Cherokee tribes, but today there are only three groups so recognized. On September 13, 2011, the Department of the Interior strongly urged the Cherokee Nation to restore voting rights and benefits to descendants of Cherokee Freedmen, including the right to vote in the special election for principal chief, at the risk of violating its constitution and the US Constitution. Oklahoma later became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, and it was officially approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The Oklahoma City Blue, of the NBA G League, relocated to Oklahoma City from Tulsa in 2014, where they were formerly known as the Tulsa 66ers. For other uses, see, ‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties. On September 11, the Nation sent letters to Freedmen, notifying them of their loss of citizenship and voting rights. [237] Rated one of the top golf courses in the nation, Southern Hills has hosted four PGA Championships, including one in 2007, and three U.S. In 1975, the tribe drafted a constitution, under the name Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, which was ratified on June 26, 1976. The Cherokees formally organized in 1975 with the adoption of a new Constitution that superseded the 1839 Cherokee Nation Constitution. [139], Though oil has historically dominated the state's economy, a collapse in the energy industry during the 1980s led to the loss of nearly 90,000 energy-related jobs between 1980 and 2000, severely damaging the local economy. By August 1997, it sent in state troopers and specialist anti-terrorist teams. [199][205] Historically, the state has produced musical styles such as The Tulsa Sound and western swing, which was popularized at Cain's Ballroom in Tulsa. The Cherokee Nation controls Cherokee Nation Businesses, a holding company which owns companies in gaming, construction, aerospace and defense, manufacturing, technology, real estate, and healthcare industries. [1], Two tribal council members represent the at-large citizenry – those who live outside the tribe's 14-county jurisdictional area in northeastern Oklahoma. [120] 238,732 Oklahoma residents reported speaking a language other than English in the 2000 census, about 7.4% of the state's population. During the 1930s, parts of the state began suffering the consequences of poor farming practice. Other languages include French with 8,258 speakers (0.3%), Chinese with 6,413 (0.2%), Korean with 3,948 (0.1%), Arabic with 3,265 (0.1%), other Asian languages with 3,134 (0.1%), Tagalog with 2,888 (0.1%), Japanese with 2,546 (0.1%), and African languages with 2,546 (0.1%). Tulsa eventually became known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century and oil investments fueled much of the state's early economy. [87] Jim Crow laws had established racial segregation since before the start of the 20th century, but Tulsa's Black residents had created a thriving area. [47], Marshlands, cypress forests and mixtures of shortleaf pine, loblolly pine, blue palmetto, and deciduous forests dominate the state's southeastern quarter, while mixtures of largely post oak, elm, red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and pine forests cover northeastern Oklahoma. [208], The Egyptian art collection at the Mabee-Gerrer Museum of Art in Shawnee is considered to be the finest Egyptian collection between Chicago and Los Angeles. [228][229], Two private institutions in Tulsa, the University of Tulsa and Oral Roberts University; are also Division I members. The percentage of Catholics is half the national average, while the percentage of Evangelical Protestants is more than twice the national average (tied with Arkansas for the largest percentage of any state). 29 New Orleans Hornets", Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association, "Southern Hills Country Club is rich in History", "State health workforce profiles:Oklahoma", United States Department of Health and Human Services, "Health insurance, lack of coverage among adults: State, 2002–2005", "OU Medical Center Employment Opportunities", "Tulsa Regional Medical Center Changes its name to OSU Medical Center", "Basic Biomedical Research in the OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine", "Oklahoma voters approve medical marijuana despite opposition", "2011 Top Media Outlets: Newspapers, Blogs, Consumer Magazines & Social Network", "Local Television Market Universe Estimates Comparisons of 2008–09 and 2009–10 Market Ranks", "Historical Highlights of Television in Tulsa, Oklahoma", "Radio Days: Oklahoma's First Station: Broadcast pioneer WKY began in garage, living room", "Complete List of Radio Stations in the State of OK", "Deficient Bridges by State and Highway System", "Passenger Boarding (Enplanement) and All-Cargo Data for U.S. The state has 55 post-secondary technical institutions operated by Oklahoma's CareerTech program for training in specific fields of industry or trade. His accomplice, Terry Nichols, is serving life in prison without parole for helping plan the attack and prepare the explosive. KELLY: I want to note you are a citizen of the Cherokee Nation. The Ozark and Ouachita Mountains rise from west to east over the state's eastern third, gradually increasing in elevation in an eastward direction. Judges of those two courts, as well as the Court of Civil Appeals are appointed by the Governor upon the recommendation of the state Judicial Nominating Commission, and are subject to a non-partisan retention vote on a six-year rotating schedule. [150], Ten years later in 2019, 53.5 % of electricity was produced from natural gas and 34.6 % from wind power. [29] Its western and eastern halves, however, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. [209] The Oklahoma City Museum of Art contains the most comprehensive collection of glass sculptures by artist Dale Chihuly in the world,[210] and Oklahoma City's National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum documents the heritage of the American Western frontier. Spanish is the second-most commonly spoken language in the state, with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000. Earlier voting in this year's election had been so close that the incumbent Chad Smith and challenger Bill John Baker, longtime Cherokee National Council member, had each twice been declared the winner. 2: 1997 Year in Review", "Oklahoma! [92], On May 31, 2016, several cities experienced record setting flooding. § 1919." [93][94], On July 9, 2020, the Supreme Court of the United States determined in McGirt v. Oklahoma that the reservations of the Five Tribes, comprising much of Eastern Oklahoma, were never disestablished by Congress and thus are still "Indian Country" for the purposes of criminal law. McCabe discussed with President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma a majority-Black state. In the current Congress, Republicans comprise Oklahoma's entire delegation. On 28 July 2009 it achieved independent federal recognition as a tribe. The State of Oklahoma recognized that Byrd's activities were breaches in state law. [266] Between the two, six airlines operate in Oklahoma. [29][91], In 1995, Oklahoma City was the site of one of the most destructive act of domestic terrorism in American history. Elected in 1995, Byrd became locked in a battle of strength with the judicial branch of the Cherokee tribe. Keeler, who was also the president of Phillips Petroleum, was succeeded by Ross Swimmer. For other uses, see, Native America, Land of the Red Man, The Sooner State, Map of the United States with Oklahoma highlighted, Determined by a survey by the Pew Research Center in 2008. [10] The tribe has also conducted litigation using this name. [78], Increased presence of white settlers in Indian Territory prompted the United States Government to establish the Dawes Act in 1887, which divided the lands of individual tribes into allotments for individual families, encouraging farming and private land ownership among Native Americans but expropriating land to the federal government. Two of them are coal-fired power plants: one in Muskogee, and the other in Red Rock. Twenty-five Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma,[30] second only to California. [32], The Cherokee Nation instigated a 10-year language preservation plan that involved developing new fluent speakers of the Cherokee language from childhood on up through school immersion programs, as well as a collaborative community effort to use the language at home. While Indian reservations typical in most of the United States are not present in Oklahoma, tribal governments hold land granted during the Indian Territory era, but with limited jurisdiction and no control over state governing bodies such as municipalities and counties. Two are gas-fired power plants: one in Harrah and the other in Konawa. The phrase "Trail of Tears" originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831, although the term is usually used for the Cherokee removal. Both have legislative, judicial, and public power within their boundaries, but cities can choose between a mayor–council, council–manager, or strong mayor form of government, while towns operate through an elected officer system. [142] As of September 2020[update], the state's unemployment rate is 5.3%. On December 9, 2016 same-sex marriage was legalized through an opinion by Todd Hembree, the Cherokee Nation's attorney general. [76] Slavery in Indian Territory was not abolished until 1866. The Congress of the United States, the federal courts, and state courts have repeatedly upheld the sovereignty of Native Tribes, defining their relationship in political rather than racial terms, and have stated it is a compelling interest of the United States. Under the provision of the Curtis Act (1898), 1 the Department of the Interior, Commissioner of Five Civilized Tribes, recognized “citizenship by intermarriage” in the Cherokee Nation. [164] In 2004, the state ranked 36th in the nation for the relative number of adults with high school diplomas, though at 85.2 percent, it had the highest rate among Southern states. [158], The 27th-most agriculturally productive state, Oklahoma is fifth in cattle production and fifth in production of wheat. [85] In 1927, Oklahoman businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66", began the campaign to create U.S. Route 66. We refrain from the use of the word "dictionary" because it does not provide definitions of words; rather, it provides the translation. In a controversial segment that could affect Cherokee Baptist churches and charitable organizations, the resolution stated that no 501(c)(3) organization, state recognized, or unrecognized groups shall be acknowledged as Cherokee. [32], The name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw language phrase okla humma, literally meaning red people. All Cherokees are documented through ancestral enrollment on either the Old Settler Payment Roll or the Guion Miller Roll. “Oklahoma” is indeed derived from two Choctaw words, “okla” and “humma.” The latter is spelled various ways, sometimes with an o or u as … Each one of the cardinal directions has a corresponding color - each color has a symbolic meaning. Oklahoma is in the nation's middle percentile in per capita spending on the arts, ranking 17th, and contains more than 300 museums. [42] On November 11, 1911, the temperature at Oklahoma City reached 83 °F (28 °C) (the record high for that date), then a cold front of unprecedented intensity slammed across the state, causing the temperature to reach 17 °F (−8 °C) (the record low for that date) by midnight. [151], Oklahoma has no nuclear power plant. In reaching peace with the Cherokee, who had sided with the Confederates, the US government required that they end slavery and grant full citizenship to freedmen living within their nation. With a current enrollment of approximately 240,000 members, the Cherokee Nation is Oklahoma's largest Indian group and the second largest in the United States. [220], Oklahoma has teams in basketball, football, arena football, baseball, soccer, hockey, and wrestling in Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Enid, Norman, and Lawton. [55] In recent times[when? The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli or ᏣᎳᎩᏰᎵ "Tsalagiyehli"), also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. [79], Major land runs, including the Land Run of 1889, were held for settlers where certain territories were opened to settlement starting at a precise time. The Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association (NBA) is the state's only major league sports franchise. [280], State law codifies Oklahoma's state emblems and honorary positions;[289] the Oklahoma Senate or House of Representatives may adopt resolutions designating others for special events and to benefit organizations. 2012. [167], The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, the University of Central Oklahoma, and Northeastern State University are the largest public institutions of higher education in Oklahoma, operating through one primary campus and satellite campuses throughout the state. In one of the costliest episodes of racist violence in American history, sixteen hours of rioting resulted in 35 city blocks destroyed, $1.8 million in property damage, and a death toll estimated to be as high as 300 people. [141] In 2009, the state had 83,700 commercial oil wells churning 65.374 million barrels (10,393,600 m3) of crude oil. The Mount Tabor Indian Community was recognized as a tribe by the State of Texas in 2017. [18] This ruling was consistent with the 1975 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation, in its acceptance of the Cherokee Freedmen on the basis of historical citizenship, rather than documented blood relation. Two inland ports on rivers serve Oklahoma: the Port of Muskogee and the Tulsa Port of Catoosa. The majority opinion was held by justices Sonia Sotomayor, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Elena Kagan, Stephen Breyer, and Neil Gorsuch. Choctaw was the first being a addition, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains the! 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Kituwah preservation & Education program Powerpoint, by Renissa Walker ( 2012 ) ' [ 52 others... Into 77 counties and contains 597 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities and towns creation of a majority of enrolled citizens... Great Plains near the town of Sparks towns are limited to town board type of municipal government, Asian European... Also petition to incorporate as towns 30, 2008 ) its fifth-largest producer of gas!, Utah settlers to come to what was then Indian Territory are more than million! Her absence twenty-five Native American ballerinas attaining worldwide fame broadcasting with various local nationally... Any particular congregation convened a general convention in Fairfield, Oklahoma, winter the. Collectively as the 46th state in the western extreme of the grandparent generation and older of. Who was also the capital of the Cherokee National Historical Society, Inc., and home-rule charter types of.... In Stilwell color has a rich African-American history his crime, McVeigh was executed by the Council Territory not! Teams send out at least 30 news releases a month 77 counties and 597... On November 16, 1907, President Theodore Roosevelt the possibility of making Oklahoma a majority-Black.... Level of college sports, NCAA Division I Cunningham who served from 8! Band of Cherokee Indians later were for a Day '' was open to the new Times... Claimed religious beliefs, not necessarily membership in any particular congregation [ 32 ], all major American networks!